gʷā-, gʷem-

gʷā-, gʷem-
    gʷā-, gʷem-
    English meaning: to go, come
    Deutsche Übersetzung: “gehen, kommen; zur Welt kommen, geboren werden”
    Note: Root gʷü-, gʷem- : “to go, come” from zero grade of Root aĝ- (*heĝ-): “to lead, *drive cattle”.
    Material: O.Ind. jí-gü-ti “goes” (= Gk. *βίβησι, compare lak. 3. sg. βίβαντι, Hom. participle βιβά̄ς “with großen Schritten einhergehend”, in addition also Hom. βιβάσθων), Aor. á-gü-m “I kam hin, walked weg” (Av.Injunkt. güt̃ “er wird hinkommen”) = Arm. kam ‘stehe”, Gk. ἔβην, Dor. ἔβᾱν “I machte mich auf, walked “; O.Ind. gǘ tram “limb, member, body”; gütú -ḥ “ gait, way, room, place”, Av. gütu-š “place, Liegerstatt, seat, throne”, O.Pers. güϑu ds.; O.Ind. ví-güman- n. “ footstep “ (pr̥thú-pragüman- “weiterschreitend”; compare gümin- “going”, further formations an o-stem güma-ḥ), Av. gü-man- n. “ footstep “, O.Ind. güya-m “ footstep “ in uru-güyá - “weiterschreitend, wide” (of way), Av. güya- (acc. güim) “ footstep “ (with formants -ya-); Arm. kam ‘stehe” ( : Gk. ἔβην); Gk. *βίβησι, βιβά̄ς, ἔβην see above; βηταρμός “Tanz”, βητάρμων “Tänzer” (from *βᾱτος or *βᾱτᾱ “das Fußaufsetzen” + ἄρμα “Gefũge”); ἀμφισβητέω, Ion. ἀμφισβᾱτέω ‘streite” (“after zwei Seiten auseinandergehend”), βῆμα n. “ footstep “ changing through ablaut βωμός m. “Tritt, grade, Gestell, altar”; infinitive βήμεναι; βηλός m. “ doorsill “; βέβηλος, Dor. βέβᾱλος, kyren. βάβᾱλος “betretbar, ungeweiht” (contrast from ἄβατος “ immortal, holy”); zero grade βέβαιος “certainly” (*good gangbar); βάδην adv. “in footstep “; βάδος m. “way”, βαθμός m. “grade, threshold, footstep “, βάθρον “ foundation “, ἐμβάτης “Männerschuh”; Alb. ngü “I run” (*ga-ni̯ō); Actually (*ga-sni̯ō) nasalized form prevented common Alb. ĝ- > d- phonetic mutatIon. Maybe Alb. ngathtë ‘slow, lazy (walk)” [common Alb. - O.Ir. -s > -th phonetic mutation] Maybe zero grade in Alb. garë “race” < Rom. goanů “race, battue”. Lith. dial. góti “go”; Ltv. güju (preterit to iêt) “I walked “ (places ein present *güi̯ ō ahead, dessen j present formant sein wird), therefrom further gâjums “ gait, row”; gàita “ gait “ (with analogical ai, Endzelin Ltv. Gk. S. 678); gütis pl. “Fluglöcher of the bees”; Lith. próga “ occasion, opportunity, term, deadline (*end of the road)” (prefix *prō̆ + gü); Lith. gãtvė “ road, livestock pasture “, Ltv. gatva “way, passage “ are Gmc. Lw. Perhaps here also Celt. words for “die” (as “fortgehen”, ἐκ βροτῶν βῆναι), as O.Ir. baĩd ‘stirbt” (*bü-a-ti from *gʷü-), at-bath “died” (*-gʷǝ-t . .), bath “death” = Welsh bad “pest, pestilence”, Bret. bad “ anesthetization “, Corn. bad-us “ phrenetical “; O.Ir. büs “death” is after gnüs “ consuetude “ etc. shaped. Contrariness of Thurneysen Gk. pp. 547, 728 is ein stem bü̆ s- not nachzuweisen; s. more properly Pedersen Litteris 2. 89 f. 2. gʷem-: Not thematic *(e)-gʷem-t (> *e-gʷen-t), -gʷm̥ -té, -gʷm-ent in O.Ind. Aor. ágan, gan (g for j after forms with original *gʷm̥ -, *gʷm-; 1. sg. ágamam), ágata (*gʷm̥ -), ágman, ágmata; gthAv. 3. sg. Inj. uz-jǝ̄ n, 3. pl. gǝmǝn; Arm. 3. sg. ekn “er kam” (= O.Ind. ágan); about die still unklare 1. sg. eki, 3. pl. ekin see Meillet Esquisse 134 f.; Gk. βάτην 3. Du., ὑπέρβᾰσαν 3. pl. probably zur root form *gʷü-; Konj. *gʷemeti in O.Ind. gám-at, -anti, gthAv. jamaiti, jimaiti; Opt. gʷm̥ -i̯ēt in O.Ind. gamyüt, Av. jamyüt̃ , ap. jamjüh (j for g from forms with lengthened grade IE *gʷem-); O.E. cyme see under; thematic: zero grade O.Ind. gámati, Av. jamaiti “goes” (O.Ind. gamáyati “läßt come, fũhrt herbei”, Av. jümayeiti “bringt zum groin, flank “), zero grade O.Ind. (Opt. Aor.) gamḗ t, gamḗ ma, gamemahi, probably also Aor. ágamat; perf. ja-gǘ ma “I walked “ (compare Goth. 1. pl. qemum); Av. frü-ɣmat̃ (gthAv.-gǝmat̃) “er kam hinzu”, O.Pers. a-gmatü; Osc. kúmbened “convenit”, cebnust (from *ce-benust) “(huc) vēnerit”, Umbr. benust, benurent “venerit, -int”; Lat. Konj. advenam (about n for m see under; perhaps with analogical -en- after den forms as Lat. veniō, ventum, vēnī); Goth. qiman (preterit qam, 1. pl. qemum: O.Ind. 1. sg. perf. ja-güma), O.H.G. queman and (zero grade?) coman = O.E. cuman, O.N. kōma “come”; O.E. Konj. Präter. (older Optat.) cyme (*gʷem-ī-t); Toch. A käm-, kum-, В käm-, kam-, śem “come”. i̯o-present *gʷm-i̯ṓ in Gk. βαίνω “go” (Fut. βήσομαι etc.), Lat. veniō “come” with very old alteration from -mi̯- to -ni̯-; after Schwyzer Gk. I 309 could das n also from forms as Av. jantu (*gʷem-tu-), Arm. ekn (*e-gʷem-t) bezogen sein; to vēnimus stimmt Goth. qemum; sk̂o-present *gʷm̥ -skṓ : O.Ind. gácchati, Av. jasaiti “er goes”, Gk. βάσκε “go! come!” Toch. A kumnäš “he comes “, Med. kumnästär, В känmasträ. Verbaladjektiv: O.Ind. gatá-ḥ “gegangen”, Av. gata- ds., Gk. βατός “gangbar” (*gʷm̥ -to-s), Lat. in-ventus. other nominal formation: O.Ind. gáti-ḥ f. “ gait “, Av. aiwi-gati- “das Herbeikommen = Eintreten, Beginnen”, Gk. βάσις f. “ footstep; base” (*gʷm̥ -ti-s), Lat. con-venti-ō “Zusammenkunft”, Goth. gaqumÞs “Zusammenkunft” (*-gʷm̥ -tis), O.N. samkund f. ds., O.H.G. cumft, Ger. Ankunft; O.Ind. gántu-ḥ m. “ gait, way”, Lat. adventus, -ūs “Ankunft”; Goth. qums “Ankunft” (*gʷem-is), O.E. cyme, O.H.G. cumi; O.Ind. gamya- “wohin man go kann or soll”, Osc. kúmbennieís gen. “conventūs”; O.H.G. biquümi “bequem” (compare “bekömmlich”), O.E. gecwēme “pleasant, fitting”, O.N. kvǣ mr “zum Kommen berechtigt or imstande”; kvüma f. “Kommen, Besuch”, kōma ds.; Toch. A kum-, AB kam-, A käm-, В śem- “come”, A kumnǝṣ , Med. kumnǝṣ tǝr “ comes “, A kakmu, В kekamu “gekommen”. With a meaning- development “(zur Welt) come” = “ born become”: Av. ni-jümayeinti ‘sie bringen zum Gebären” (*ni-jüma- “birth”); Gk. ἐ-βάθη ἐγεννέθη Hes.; albO.N. pre-gjim “Gastmahl by the Erstgeburt”; Lith. gemù, gim̃ti “ born become” = Ltv. dzemu, dzìmt ds., Lith. gìmstu (to Akzent see Schulze KZ. 45, 230) = Ltv. dzìmstu ds., Lith. gimine ̃ “ family “, gỹmis “birth”, gãmas “Angeborenes”, causative gamìnti “Kinder erzeugen, Vieh zũchten”, Ltv. dzìmts “angeboren, erbgehörig, leibeigen”, dzìmša “birth” = O.Pruss. gimsenin acc. sg. “birth”, O.Pruss. gemton “ to give birth to children “, gemmons participle perf. “ born “.
    References: WP. I 675 ff., Meillet Esquisse2 134 f., Schwyzer Gk. I 309, 689, 7423, 7072, Trautmann 76, Pedersen Toch. 170 ff., 221, 234.

Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary. 2015.

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